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HTML – 概述

HTML代表超文本标记语言,它是Web上用于开发网页的最广泛使用的语言。HTML由Berners-Lee于1991年末创建,但“HTML 2.0”是1995年发布的第一个标准HTML规范.HTML 4.01是HTML的主要版本,于1999年末发布。尽管HTML 4.01版本被广泛使用但目前我们正在使用HTML-5版本,它是HTML 4.01的扩展,此版本于2012年发布。

HTML - 概述

HTML代表^ h yper 牛逼分机中号 arkup 大号 anguage,它是写网页使用最广泛的语言。

  • 超文本指的是网页(HTML文档)链接在一起的方式。因此,网页上可用的链接称为超文本。
  • 顾名思义,HTML是一种标记语言,这意味着您可以使用HTML简单地“标记”文本文档,并使用标记告诉Web浏览器如何构建它以进行显示。

最初,HTML的开发旨在定义文档的结构,如标题,段落,列表等,以便于研究人员之间共享科学信息。

现在,HTML被广泛用于借助HTML语言中提供的不同标签来格式化网页。

基本HTML文档

在最简单的形式中,以下是HTML文档的示例 –

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

   <head>
      <title>This is document title</title>
   </head>
	
   <body>
      <h1>This is a heading</h1>
      <p>Document content goes here.....</p>
   </body>
	
</html>

这是一个标题

文档内容在这里……

HTML标签

如前所述,HTML是一种标记语言,它使用各种标记来格式化内容。这些标签包含在角撑括号<标签名称>中。除少数标签外,大多数标签都有相应的结束标签。例如,<html>的结束标记</ html><body>标记的结束标记</ body>标记等。

上面的HTML文档示例使用以下标记 –

Sr.No 标签和说明
1 <!DOCTYPE …>此标记定义文档类型和HTML版本。
2 <HTML>此标记包含完整的HTML文档,主要包括由<head> … </ head>表示的文档标题和由<body> … </ body>标记表示的文档正文。
3 <HEAD>此标记表示文档的标题,可以保留其他HTML标记,如<title>,<link>等。
4 <TITLE>在<head>标记内使用<title>标记来提及文档标题。
<BODY>此标记表示文档的正文,它保留其他HTML标记,如<h1>,<div>,<p>等。
6 <H1>此标记表示标题。
7 <P>此标记代表一个段落。

要学习HTML,您需要在格式化文本文档时学习各种标记并了解它们的行为方式。学习HTML很简单,因为用户必须学习不同标签的使用,以便格式化文本或图像以制作漂亮的网页。

万维网联盟(W3C)建议从HTML 4开始使用小写标签。

HTML文档结构

典型的HTML文档将具有以下结构 –

<html>
   
   <head>
      Document header related tags
   </head>
   
   <body>
      Document body related tags
   </body>
   
</html>

我们将在后续章节中研究所有标题和正文标记,但现在让我们看看什么是文档声明标记。

<!DOCTYPE>声明

Web浏览器使用<!DOCTYPE>声明标记来了解文档中使用的HTML版本。当前版本的HTML为5,它使用以下声明 –

<!DOCTYPE html>

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